Influence Peddling and Privatization of the State: Getting Public Contracts in the Sicilian Waste Sector
From an empirical study relating to management of waste incineration in Sicily during the 2000th decade, this paper offers an analysis of informal practices in decision-making at the State level, and shows how the idea of the common good can be rigged and confiscated for their private interests by the holders of power. With the elements gathered during the investigation which reveals a cartel agreement between the successful bidders with the complicity of regional political and administrative leaders, we hypothesize a privatization of the state in terms of the appropriation and embezzlement by public actors for private purposes of the symbolic functions of State and its administrative apparatus. The fiction of the common good and state rhetoric are used so that individual interests become the interests of the State. This personal appropriation of the State institution creates a political split between the formal and the informal registers; and it is in this split that public policies are developed and the state is constructed on a day-to-day basis. Stress is particularly laid on how the law is mobilized to assemble and implement informal dealings in a social space where the decisions of the authorities and administrations are subjected to procedures of publicization and control.
Female Prostitution in Corsica: the Ambivalence of the “Caboulots” Bars
Female prostitution in Corsica has never until now been studied. The phenomenon appears indeed totally invisible when considered from the point of view of public statistics. At the same time, the “caboulots” – those “hostess bars” where transactional sex is far from being exceptional – seem known to all. This article has the ambition to investigate this paradox and so to throw light on certain characteristics of female prostitution in Corsica. On the basis of a qualitative research carried out between 2004 and 2013 and supported by theories concerning the trafficking of women, it first of al identifies the characteristics of the “caboulots” and of the women who practice there. it then focusses on the anchoring of these places in differentiated rural and urban contexts. Finally it raises questions concerning the ambivalence of these places as understood from the point of view of the social rules and social.
Economic Transactions and the Marking of Borders in the Gated Condominiums of Buenos Aires
Like in other cities in the world, there is in Buenos Aires a recent residential classification that makes a distinction between “gated” and “not gated” buildings. instead of studying these “gated condominiums” as enclaves, this paper considers this classification as an “emic” category and analyzes the kind of social relations that it implies. Using ethnographic data, the paper shows that what makes the buildings “gated” is not the absence of contact between their residents and the outside, but the way this contact – particularly between the residents and the employees of the condominiums – is managed inside. in order to shed light on the problem of the legitimization of this classification, the paper is focused on the changas – the work that the employees of the condominiums do for the residents and which implies a personal relation between them.
Trade and Smuggling: Importation Networks of Printed Textiles between Brazzaville and Kinshasa
A river port organizes trade through connecting the two border capital cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa located on the banks of the Congo River in Central Africa. in the last decade, this river port has become notorious for trafficking where an intense petty smuggling activity – well known although hidden – illegally imports Asian printed textiles from Brazzaville to Kinshasa. Through a description of these smuggling practices taking place in a river port where the State administration officers are supposedly in control, this paper analyses how smugglers and officers construct together the norms for the importation and trafficking of goods.
The Territorial Control in the Favelas by Drug Dealers in Rio de Janeiro
This paper addresses the territorial control process in the favelas by drug traffickers in the city of Rio de Janeiro. initially home to the drug trade in the city, the favelas have become a source territory for gangs that have changed into criminal organizations with multiple activities, now in competition with “militias” which have proliferated in recent yeats. in order to maintain their domination, these organizations apply their own stringent control rules to the favelas, thereby deepening their physical and social isolation which is part of a wider effort to privatize public spaces in the city. Faced with such an alarming development, the authorities have had to review their security policy, traditionally based on actions of direct confrontation with drug dealers, in order to occupy the favelas permanently and peacefuly.
The Traffic in the Stone? Prostitutions, Public Space and Business in Paris’Goutte d’Or at the End of the 19th Century
By describing some issues of the traffic in street prostitution at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries at the Goutte d’Or, this article uncovers the origin of the bad reputation that still clings to the stones of this working-class Paris district. The analysis of the complaints sent to the Commissioner of Police reveals the strength of the conflicts among the local economic actors with comflicting views about public space. While the specific relations of the prostitutes with the other users of the public space enriched some traders, it provoking the jealousy of their colleagues from the formal economy who were unable to benefit from this kind of direct relationship with the pedestrians of the neighborhood.
“We Help Them to Leave”. Relocation as it Reveals the Contradictions of Social Development in the Context of Urban Renewal
This paper studies an urban renewal project in the French National Urban Renewal Program (2003) in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. it consists of the demolition of a residential tower and the relocation of populations. This paper focuses specifically on institutional actors responsible for promoting a project seeking to transform a neighbourhood and demolish a tower without directly concerning the local residents. How do they proceed with their plans based as they are on the development of resources and local capacities? How do the different institutional actors focusing each on different aspects of the project develop their communications both amongst themselves and with the populations involved? How do they attempt to cut the link between the inhabitants and where they live? What are their methods and the difficulties they face? What might we learn from the difficulties they encounter concerning the relations of the working classes with regard to the new managerial methods and to the transformation of their living space?
residential vulnerability, participation.
Métropolitanisation, Interior Frontiers and “Invisible Towns” in China
The organisation of a chinese town before 1979 was based on principles of collective life and economic and social structures as they related to the socialist system. it appeared as a unitary, organic and solidary structure with neither visible interior social frontiers nor the existence of minorities. in chinese towns today socialist inheritances and new urbanities create dualities, fragmentations and overlappings in social and economic spaces of unequal legitimity and producing multiple inequalities. Continuities and discontinuities are now appearing between the urban worlds where invisible towns are being born. The process of transformation and of globalisation of chinese metropolises is producing simultaneously new interior frontiers and cosmopolitan economics.
Representations and Practices with Regard to the Nature in a Transfrontier Territory: a case study of “Marritime-Mercantour”
The existence of tension between nature conservation projects, the local inhabitants and visitors who partake in nature sports or activities. This article analyses the situation of two natural parks, located on the French and italian border, and their relations with their respective territories as protected spaces. Using a socio-historical investigation, this study argues that the intensity of the tensions is closely dependent on the level of implication of the users of the protected area of the Parks with regard to the activities available. The different ways of relating to users of these two territories, which characterize the National Park of Mercantour and adjoining Alpi Marittime Park, seem to stem from different vision of nature – and its protection – that are widely divergent.